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Explain about SAP ABAP - Data Types?

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While programming in ABAP, we need to use a variety of variables to store various information. Variables are nothing but reserved memory locations to store values. This means that when you create a variable you reserve some space in memory. You may like to store information of various data types like character, integer, floating point, etc. Based on the data type of a variable, the operating system allocates memory and decides what can be stored in the reserved memory.

Elementary Data Types

ABAP offers the programmer a rich assortment of fixed length as well as variable length data types. Following table lists down ABAP elementary data types −

TypeKeyword
Byte fieldX
Text fieldC
IntegerI
Floating pointF
Packed numberP
Text stringSTRING

Some of the fields and numbers can be modified using one or more names as the following −

  • byte
  • numeric
  • character-like

The following table shows the data type, how much memory it takes to store the value in memory, and the minimum and maximum value that could be stored in such type of variables.

TypeTypical LengthTypical Range
X1 byteAny byte values (00 to FF)
C1 character1 to 65535
N (numeric text filed)1 character1 to 65535
D (character-like date)8 characters8 characters
T (character-like time)6 characters6 characters
I4 bytes-2147483648 to 2147483647
F8 bytes2.2250738585072014E-308 to 1.7976931348623157E+308 positive or negative
P8 bytes[-10^(2len -1) +1] to [+10^(2len -1) 1] (where len = fixed length)
STRINGVariableAny alphanumeric characters
XSTRING (byte string)VariableAny byte values (00 to FF)

Example

REPORT YR_SEP_12. 
DATA text_line TYPE C LENGTH 40. 
text_line = 'A Chapter on Data Types'. 
Write text_line. 

DATA text_string TYPE STRING. 
text_string = 'A Program in ABAP'. 
Write / text_string. 

DATA d_date TYPE D<span style="color:#666600" c

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